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4D Printing & the Future of Manufacturing

If you haven't yet gotten used to the idea that 3D printing is playing an important role in the supply chain, you'd better hurry up. 4D printing is about to change today's manufacturing by adding transformation capabilities to 3D-printed objects on an industrial scale.

Self-assembly, replication, self-repair, and self-adaptation will change design, and the creative process that gives life to components, giving birth to a new era in the manufacturing world. 3D printing will no longer be a component's end-of-life. On the contrary, it will be just the beginning.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Self-Assembly Lab's director, Skylar Tibbits, a trained architect, designer, and computer scientist, has been working in collaboration with Stratasys and Autodesk to develop smart components that after being 3D printed can reconfigure themselves without the assistance of a human being.

According to a press release:

4D Printing entails multi-material prints provided by Stratasys' Connex Technology with the added capability of embedded transformation from one shape to another, directly off the print-bed. This revolutionary technique offers a streamlined path from idea to reality with full functionality built directly into the materials. Imagine robotics-like behavior without the reliance on complex electro-mechanical devices.

The work with 4D printing is a collaboration between Stratasys's Education and R&D departments, and MIT's Self-Assembly Lab. Stratasys is one of the leading companies in 3D printing. Using Stratasys's already existing Connex multi-material technology, and a new expanding material developed by Stratasys, and adding Autodesk's software used for 4D printing, the team has been able to add transformation capabilities to 3D printed objects. This fourth dimension opens doors to new possibilities that can be applied to different manufacturing sectors, including aerospace, automotive, building, and water-piping.

By using a specialized 3D printer from Stratasys, manufacturers can create multi-layered materials. These materials can be programmed in any 1D, 2D, or 3D shape. Programming the materials with transformation capabilities adds the 4D.

Watch a 4D-printed, self-folding surface cube experiment by MIT's Self-Assembly Lab, and Stratasys:

(Source: Skylar Tibbits)

Adding the 4D
During a Skype interview, Skylar explained that smart components change shape, property, and make decisions by adding information into physical components, and this doesn't mean sensors, accelerators, or robotics. 4D printing is one example of a smart component.

4D printing is a good example of smart components because supports printing with multiple materials: one rigid, and one that expands 50 times in water. In this way the expandable material expands the rigid material, the structure, and all the information in it.

Skylar told me that even though they are not specifically targeting the electronics space, there is a lot of opportunity there. For example, the devices themselves could be 4D printed if the device would have 4D properties, or smart component properties.

In this short TED video, Skylar Tibbits explains the emergence of 4D printing:

Skylar is in active search for a manufacturing partner to bring the 4D-printing project to the next level. A company with vision into the future will be able to see the potential, and participate in one of the most exciting emerging technologies we are seeing these days.

Right now, it's more of a dream with amazing possibilities. Apply your imagination to it: What applications would you like to see resulting from 4D printing?

73 comments on “4D Printing & the Future of Manufacturing

  1. Hailey Lynne McKeefry
    August 19, 2013

    I have to squint a little to get a picture of this in my head (thanks for the videos, they help a lot!)  i'd be interested in knowing more about how the materials that can be printed will evolve. Are these 4D products mainly plastic now? What about metals?

  2. Lavender
    August 19, 2013

    3D printing makes supply chain show new characteristics , such as becoming faster, smaller, cheaper and local. 

    But to implement large-scale 3D or 4D printing, there are still a lot of obstables, because 3D printing largely cut employees. 

  3. Hailey Lynne McKeefry
    August 19, 2013

    @Lily, can you say more about why you think this technology will cut employees? I find that we are often afraid of that. However, many times it makes the job obsolete but frees up people to do other, and more strategic things.

  4. Lavender
    August 20, 2013

    3D printing is a technology producing products with less human resources in the production line. In fact, there is another factor-intelligent robot contributing to the simpler supply chain. This change largely reduce the number of general workers. 

  5. Daniel
    August 20, 2013

    Susan, very interesting. Actually 3D printing is not still common and before it get popularized another version 4D technology is evolving. What I understood from the video is 'transformation capacity' is the significance in 4D, when compare with 3D. But am not getting what's it's significance in supply chain

  6. Daniel
    August 20, 2013

    “3D printing is a technology producing products with less human resources in the production line. In fact, there is another factor-intelligent robot contributing to the simpler supply chain. This change largely reduce the number of general workers.”

    Lily, so again unemployment is the issue. So how the sector is going to deal this is the big question

  7. Ashu001
    August 20, 2013

    Hailey, I had those very same issues in my head! Having experimented with 3D printing myself I can tell u the technology is not yet ready for mass use today-the plastic breaks too easily. But we r definitely getting there.just need more time and experimentation.

  8. Ashu001
    August 20, 2013

    Jacob, The issues of transformative capacity are definitely some way away today-as more amd more people experimenting with this , u will discover more and more exciting stuff happening in the future-sort of like crowdsourcing revolution! !!

  9. Ariella
    August 20, 2013

    @Ashish I'd love to hear more about your experience with 3D printing. It's not jsut a matter of figurines and playthings any more. Industries are using it in various ways. GE even uses 3D printing techniques for titanium parts of jet engines.  

  10. Ashu001
    August 20, 2013

    Lily,

    Your concerns when it comes to Employment(Especially Youth ) are very-very real here.

    Unfortunately as long as Capital stays as cheap as it is today;I don't see any real way for this Trend of Increasing Robotics to change.

    On the plus side,what with Rapidly Ageing populations in most of the Developed world today very soon you will see lots of Jobs for the Youngsters as the Baby Boomers start to die off.

    An Interesting perspective on Welfare and Jobs here

    http://globaleconomicanalysis.blogspot.ae/2013/08/why-work-for-725-when-welfare-pays-1500.html

     

  11. Houngbo_Hospice
    August 20, 2013

    @Ariella, “GE even uses 3D printing techniques for titanium parts of jet engines” That sounds interesting, but I always wonder if there is a large market for 3D printing besides “figurines and playthings”, as you said.

  12. Ashu001
    August 20, 2013

    Ariella,

    As I Said earlier the Big Problem I had was that Parts are too Brittle and break easy.

    Not usable for Heavy-Duty /Rough Use today.

    I am sure as a lot of Crowd sourcing takes off on this issue,we will see more Improvements(and better materials developed) here.

    But it takes time.

    Sure was exciting to play with these Printers!

     

  13. Ariella
    August 20, 2013

    @Ashish I'm sure it was.

  14. Ariella
    August 20, 2013

    @HH Here's GE's video on it. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l0SXlkrmzyw

    Todd Rockstroh, the GE consulting engineer in charge of the printing project, told MIT Technology Review that his company would save about $25,000 for each engine from the reduced time and waste of materials in production. He also anticipated using 3D printing to redesign parts more efficiently. For example, a redesign of a fuel injector stem took only a week. “Before, we would have had to redesign 20 different parts, with all the associated tooling,” and the company still may not have been able to pull it off.

    The only thing holding GE back from fully integrating 3D printing was insufficient data to assure uniform results, and they solved that with a big data solution that I wrote about for another site.

  15. Hailey Lynne McKeefry
    August 20, 2013

    3D printing (and i'm sure 4D printing) really is making a splash. There has been a rush on the patent office to try to own some of these capabilities. According to this article in NBC:

    Goldman Sachs recently cited 3-D printing as one of eight trends poised to disrupt industries. In the last decade, the Patent and Trademark Office has received more than 6,800 patent applications related to 3-D printing, also known as additive manufacturing. By one estimate, the global market reached $2.2 billion last year—up 28.6 percent from 2011.

     

     

  16. Hailey Lynne McKeefry
    August 20, 2013

    Thanks for this link, Ariella. This is a fascinating real-world example of how this kind of technology can enhance speed to design.

  17. Lavender
    August 20, 2013

    Yes, the aging population in developed countries provides jobs to young people; but for the populous developing countries, the intelligent robot still has a long way. 

  18. prabhakar_deosthali
    August 21, 2013

    While looking at the new breakthrough technologies , we should not always fear about the jobs lost. These technologies actually help to eliminate the mundane repetitive jobs , and create an environment for more creative jobs .  So instead of doing dumb repetitive work , a person is free to put his energies where he can also apply his mind.

     

  19. Daniel
    August 21, 2013

    “The issues of transformative capacity are definitely some way away today-as more amd more people experimenting with this , u will discover more and more exciting stuff happening in the future-sort of like crowdsourcing revolution! !!”

    Tech4people, you are right. when the technology get popularized there is no doubt that it can make many changes.

  20. Daniel
    August 21, 2013

    “While looking at the new breakthrough technologies , we should not always fear about the jobs lost.”

    Prabhakar, but always happening in reverse, I mean negative thoughts are popping up. When computer came peoples feared about losing job, but actually it created more job opportunities.  Similarly for 4D printing also the same thing is going to happen.

  21. Taimoor Zubar
    August 21, 2013

    “These technologies actually help to eliminate the mundane repetitive jobs , and create an environment for more creative jobs”

    @prabhakar: That's exactly what my point is too. New technologies help in creating new jobs which are much greater in number than the jobs they eliminate. Take the example of 3D and 4D printing. Every company that owns a printer will require a technician to operate it and that's a new job. Similarly, companies will need other vendors to sell these and maintain these which leads to the creation of new businesses and hence new jobs.

  22. Taimoor Zubar
    August 21, 2013

    “Goldman Sachs recently cited 3-D printing as one of eight trends poised to disrupt industries”

    @Hailey: I think 3D printing will continue to dominate but the usage will mostly be restricted to designing and prototyping. I don't think we will see it being used commercially for large scale manufacturing as yet. It will be a long way before the technology becomes more advanced and the price drops down.

  23. FLYINGSCOT
    August 21, 2013

    This sound fascinating.  Do you know what kind of specific applications there are in electronics?

  24. Ashu001
    August 21, 2013

    Jacob,

    There are many things that you can visualize happening here(not all of that positive/Beneficial to the Global economy going ahead).

    Still that does'nt mean one should'nt try and experiment with this very exciting Technology today.

    Crowd-sourcing can create many-many great inventions today!

     

  25. Ashu001
    August 21, 2013

    FlyingScot,

    Right now I am looking at Basic Analog and Digital Circuits.

    To do something complex (especially Motherboards,etc) will take more time and expertise.

    Its probably 3 years away from full functionality today.

  26. elctrnx_lyf
    August 22, 2013

    As we are still talking about the intelligent 3D printing, 4D priniting is alredy here. Is it really going to be game changer in terms of the technology that provide more benefits to humans or it is going to be just another fancy piece of technology without many added benefits.

  27. _hm
    August 22, 2013

    This should be hepful to design prototypes. But perhaps, it may not be able to help much in mass production. To realize this potential, it will need many other resources and will add higher cost to it.

     

  28. Ashu001
    August 22, 2013

    Electric,

    Your sceptism is wholly justified.

    As I had said so earlier here,Its very much a matter of time before anything serious (impactful for Society at large)happens here.

    Right now its mainly Hard-core Technology Enthusiasts who are playing with this Technology today.

    That does'nt mean that it will never take off;Its just that crowd-sourcing still has to figure out where all can it be used effectively today.

     

  29. Daniel
    August 22, 2013

    “Still that does'nt mean one should'nt try and experiment with this very exciting Technology today.”

    Tech4people, if you are not able to visualize and use cases, there is no invension.

  30. Ashu001
    August 22, 2013

    Jacob,

    Just because I can't visualize something currently does'nt mean the Whole World Wide Web can't.

    There are so many super-smart people on the Web today,its beyond Astounding.

    That's the magic of Crowdsourcing.

     

  31. Houngbo_Hospice
    August 22, 2013

    @Jacob, Invention is first about idea, the conceptual design before the implementation. But in many cases, the finished product is what the end user wants to see.

  32. itguyphil
    August 22, 2013

    At least that's what you would hope for…

  33. Daniel
    August 23, 2013

    “ust because I can't visualize something currently does'nt mean the Whole World Wide Web can't. There are so many super-smart people on the Web today,its beyond Astounding. That's the magic of Crowdsourcing.”

    Tech4people, finally its also by visualization capability of somebody else.

  34. Daniel
    August 23, 2013

    “Invention is first about idea, the conceptual design before the implementation. But in many cases, the finished product is what the end user wants to see.”

    HH, Its all the differential imaginary stages passing through the mind of a developer or R&D engineers. End user is bother only about the various use cases and their conveniences.

  35. Susan Fourtané
    August 23, 2013

    Hailey, 

    Stratasys 3D printer can produce multi-layered materials, usually a regular rigid plastic layer, along with an outer layer made of “smart” materials. When submerged in water, as you can see in the first video, the “smart” material absorbs and expands, causing the parts to move, and form a pre-specified object like the cube you see in the video.

    -Susan 

  36. Susan Fourtané
    August 23, 2013

    Lily, 

    So you mean progress, innovation, and evolution in technology has to immediately stop because people are not able to learn new skills to cover the new positions that will be emerge as a consequence of changes in manufacturing, and the supply chain? 

    -Susan

  37. Susan Fourtané
    August 23, 2013

    Hailey, 

    As Skylar Tibbits explained, as I wrote, and as it is obvious, jobs will not be cut, but they will changed. As manufacturing, technology, the supply chain evolve it is simply logical that jobs will evolve as well.

    Old jobs that become redundant will disappear to give space for new jobs where humans will have more interaction with machines.

    Thinking otherwise is not having a view into the future. There is a need for people to start being more open-minded, and less afraid of change.

    -Susan 

  38. Susan Fourtané
    August 23, 2013

    Lily, 

     “This change largely reduce the number of general workers.”

    Why it's so difficult for you to understand that jobs will change, and employees will be doing other new jobs that will be required? 

    -Susan

  39. Susan Fourtané
    August 23, 2013

    Jacob, 

    As I wrote, the fourth dimension opens doors to new possibilities that can be applied to different manufacturing sectors, including aerospace, automotive, building, and water-piping. The possibilities are endless. 4D printing is in its beginnings. Tibbits it's looking for a a visionary manufacturer to start giving 4D printing a space in the industry. 

    You will be able to see change in the assembly-line, which will become a self-assembly line. I wrote especifically about this, and you will see the article soon here. Maybe that clarifies more your question. The fourth dimension which adds tranformation capabilities is a game changer. Think of water piping, and how 4D printing can help. 

    -Susan 

  40. Susan Fourtané
    August 23, 2013

    Jacob, 

    “so again unemployment is the issue. So how the sector is going to deal this is the big question”

    No, that's wrong. As I said, jobs will evolve in the same way the new technologies are evolving. People's jobs will change to do apply their best skills. This has happened in the history of humanity, if you come to think about. People are just slow to accept changes. Without changes there is no evolution.

    -Susan

  41. Susan Fourtané
    August 23, 2013

    Ashish, 

    Well, if they have even 3D printed a kidney using human stem cells don't you think the technology is more advanced than what people think?

    Now, think of Ikea furniture. Wouldn't you like to to just sit on your new chair after it has assembled itself while you were sipping your coffee? 😀 

    Everything depends on the materials used in the 3D printing process. If you had an experience where the materials broke easily most likely they were not of a good quality. Tell me more about your experience with 3D printing.

    -Susan

  42. Susan Fourtané
    August 23, 2013

    Ashish, 

    There is a new industrial revolution happening. Soon I will be writing about this. It's fascinating. A crowdsourcing, open-source revolution will also be playing a role. 

    -Susan

  43. Susan Fourtané
    August 23, 2013

    HH, 

    The fact that we don't know something doesn't mean it doesn't exist. As I always say, remember? This applies to the 3D, and 4D printing in industrial scale.

    If there are researchers working on this, is there is something like Tibbits' Assembly-Lab in existence it's probably because there is, or will be soon a market for it. Would you work real hard on something that goes nowhere? Most likely not.

    There is a 3D printer on its way to ISS, for example. Do you think NASA is going to invest in sending such a thing if it wouldn't be useful up there? No. 

    -Susan

  44. Susan Fourtané
    August 23, 2013

    Prabhakar, 

    “These technologies actually help to eliminate the mundane repetitive jobs , and create an environment for more creative jobs .  So instead of doing dumb repetitive work , a person is free to put his energies where he can also apply his mind.”

    Exactly! That's the smart way to think about this.

    -Susan

  45. Susan Fourtané
    August 23, 2013

    Jacob, 

    “When computer came peoples feared about losing job, but actually it created more job opportunities.  Similarly for 4D printing also the same thing is going to happen.”

    That's right. People should start having so much fear about evolution, and change. Or, go and and live in a cave if they can't adapt to evolution. 

    -Susan

  46. Susan Fourtané
    August 23, 2013

    Taimoor, 

    “I don't think we will see it being used commercially for large scale manufacturing as yet”

    Why not? 

    -Susan

  47. Susan Fourtané
    August 23, 2013

    Flyingscot, 

    The possibilities are plenty, and that's the point, to start thinking, and developing applications for the new technologies. Did you watch the video?

    -Susan 

  48. Ashu001
    August 23, 2013

    Susan,

    My sentiments precisely.

    Lot of people have no clue about the extent and capability of this Technology and especially the Crowd sourcing Aspect.

    Lot of sceptics present today(you can find many on your blog as well).

    I ain't one of them!

    Regards

    Ashish.

  49. Ashu001
    August 23, 2013

    Susan,

    My experience was enjoyable(I felt like I was in the Lab/workshop after so so long!!!).

    Just feel like the Materials are too brittle today and if we try to use harder stuff the Printer gets messed up.

    So lot of work still remains to be done here!

     

  50. Ashu001
    August 23, 2013

    Jacob,

    Clearly you are not convinced/Have no experience about how the Crowdsourcing Phenomenon works today.

    I recommend you give it some time and let it warm upto You!

  51. Ashu001
    August 23, 2013

    Jacob,

    Clearly you are not convinced/Have no experience about how the Crowdsourcing Phenomenon works today.

    I recommend you give it some time and let it warm upto You!

  52. Susan Fourtané
    August 23, 2013

    Ashish, 

    Yes, I have already seen many sceptics. I think there are two main reasons why people remain sceptic regarding new technologies: one is repeating what someone has said, just like a parrot.

    The other one is lacking of vision, and understanding of the technology in question. It has happened with other new technologies, like the cloud, for example. How many people still talk about the security, and privacy “concerns”. Honestly, I am quite fed up with those “concerns”. 

    Both 3D, and 4D printing are fascinating technolgies with great potential to improve manufacturing, making the supply chain faster, better, and more efficient while humans watch that everything is going smoothly. Then there are the ones with “concerns” (I hate the word) about people losing their jobs. Adaptation is required here, and those who will not adapt will disappear. 

    You have mentioned crowdsourcing here several times. Why are you linking this to crowdsourcing? This is not a crowdsourced project. :/

    -Susan

     

  53. Ashu001
    August 23, 2013

    Susan,

    To get an idea about where all this Technology can be used most effectively we need to Tap into Many different brains globally-That's where Crowdsourcing aspect comes in.

    As for the Cloud not having Security/Privacy issues,I recommend you read up on NSAs PRISM,Keyscore Programs.

    Heck I can see Governments Globally engage in all kinds of Covert Surveillance of their Own Citizens because they have frankly speaking lost control over the Economy.

    Its beyond Disgusting and the coolest part is that the World's Biggest Democracies[US,UK and India] are at the forefront of this move.

     

  54. Susan Fourtané
    August 23, 2013

    Ashish, 

    So nice to hear you have an enjoyable 3D printing experience. 😀 I would attribute the problem you experienced with materials to low quality. What I know is that there are some very good quality materials for 3D printing out there.

    Well, I think you maybe saw the GE video Ariella posted somewhere below. That's no 3D printing joke, or any toy. 

    However, I agree with you that still more work needs to be done. But hey! This is just the beginning, and we should be appreciative of the work of all these researchers who spend hours, and hours experimenting to bring great things like 4D printing to our daily life.

    Yes, I know, not so yet. But yet, I find it fascinating, I believe in it's potential, in the many applications that this will have, and I wish everyone would be more supporting, and encouraging. 

    -Susan

  55. Susan Fourtané
    August 23, 2013

    Ashish, 

    Yes, I know you always recommend me good readings. I appreciate it. And I see your point. But what I was saying is more about the same people repeating the same thing over, and over, and over during years. Pay attention, and you will see what I mean.

    -Susan 

     

     

  56. Susan Fourtané
    August 24, 2013

    Hailey, 

    This GE turbine is 3D, not 4D printed but it gives you an idea of the potential, and uses of these technologies. When you add tranformation capabilities to the materials you can create amazing things. Have you ever seen Transformers? Think of something like that when you think 4D printing, and you will get a better picture of what it could be done. 

    The link didn't work as I wanted (GE turbine), it goes to my Twitter profile. Just click on the picture of the turbine that you see on the left. 

    -Susan

  57. Ashu001
    August 24, 2013

    Susan,

    Please Don't start on the Transformers!!!

    They are part of My Favorite Movies of all time(Alongwith The Avengers as well as Pacific Rim) but putting aside the Sci-Fi capabilities ;one has to agree.

    The Transformation capabilities are endless today.

     

  58. Ashu001
    August 24, 2013

    Susan,

    I always pay attention to every single thing that you say(LOL!!!).

    But yes your sentiments are very accurate here as well.

    Too many Sceptics who don't really understand/Appreciate the Change Agents today.

    And they cause a lot of problems for everyone involved!!!

  59. Susan Fourtané
    August 24, 2013

    Ashish, 

    Yay! I almost add a video of the Transformers to this piece as example of what you can expect in the future of 4D printing. I don't remember why I didn't. :/

    All what was sci-fi yesterday is reality today.

     

    -Susan 

  60. Susan Fourtané
    August 24, 2013

    Ashish, 

    Adding transformation capabilities: 

     

    {youtubenew|/embed/7pd9uUEZCnE?rel=0|315|560}

  61. Susan Fourtané
    August 24, 2013

    “I always pay attention to every single thing that you say(LOL!!!).”

    Thanks, Ashish! 😀

    Yes, it's quite problematic in many ways.

    -Susan

  62. Hailey Lynne McKeefry
    August 24, 2013

    @Ariella, that $25,000 is probably just a drop in the bucket compared with teh cost of teh end product, or even the cost of the engine, but certainly these are numbers that will catch the attention of people who are struggling wth a tough budget. I wonder if it will end up making people more people willing to do redesign because it isn't so costly…

  63. Hailey Lynne McKeefry
    August 24, 2013

    @Susan, to your point: “Old jobs that become redundant will disappear to give space for new jobs where humans will have more interaction with machines.

    Thinking otherwise is not having a view into the future. There is a need for people to start being more open-minded, and less afraid of change.”

     

    Very well said and i agree… fear of change is a huge stumbling block to transformation and movement forward. an excellent reminder.

  64. Hailey Lynne McKeefry
    August 24, 2013

    @Susan, thanks for posting the video…it was a bit of weekend fun for me!

  65. Susan Fourtané
    August 25, 2013

    Hailey 

    “. . . fear of change is a huge stumbling block to transformation and movement forward. an excellent reminder.”

    Exactly. That's why I never understand when some people can't see forward, beyond their nose, can't adapt to changes, and most importantly they can't see the work and effort of these researchers working on bringing new technologies like 4D printing to the industrial level, working to make them available to everybody. 

    I simply can't justify someone who is more worried about things than can be fixed, like workers learning new skills to access the new jobs that will emerge when these technologies reach the supply chain in so many fields. Plenty of new jobs that don't exist today will be available. I think people who think otherwise are lazy thinkers, who won't go far if they don't change their attitude, because for them complaining is a daily habit.

    As I was saying below, I have seen the same people repeating the same things about their “concerns” for years now. They use the same old argument every time there is a discussion about new technologies, and their incorporation to manufacturing, for example. So, after many times of reading the same it becomes boring, unthoughtful, and way too narrow-minded. 

    If there is no change there is no evolution. If everyone would have been so unwilling to adapt in the past, and to embrace change humanity would be still living in the Stone Age. 

    -Susan  

  66. Susan Fourtané
    August 25, 2013

    Hailey, 

    Glad you liked it. I tried to find a Transformers video for the article, but none of the ones I found showing what I wanted to show was short enough. But if you think of Transformers you get a pretty clear picture of what 4D printing might bring in the future. 

    -Susan

  67. Hailey Lynne McKeefry
    August 26, 2013

    @Susan, let's hope not! that clip was a little high impact for me. 🙂 Indeed, though, it gets you to thinking that this technology will take us in directions that we can't imagine.

  68. Daniel
    August 26, 2013

    “That's right. People should start having so much fear about evolution, and change. Or, go and and live in a cave if they can't adapt to evolution. “

    Susan, its always better to educate peoples for keeping out such fears.

  69. Daniel
    August 26, 2013

    “As I said, jobs will evolve in the same way the new technologies are evolving. People's jobs will change to do apply their best skills. This has happened in the history of humanity, if you come to think about. People are just slow to accept changes. Without changes there is no evolution.”

    Susan, infact it will create more job opportunities, but may be in some other rolls.

  70. Daniel
    August 26, 2013

    “You will be able to see change in the assembly-line, which will become a self-assembly line. I wrote especifically about this, and you will see the article soon here. Maybe that clarifies more your question. The fourth dimension which adds tranformation capabilities is a game changer. Think of water piping, and how 4D printing can help. ”

    Susan, thanks and hope to read more about it.

  71. Daniel
    August 26, 2013

    “Clearly you are not convinced/Have no experience about how the Crowdsourcing Phenomenon works today. I recommend you give it some time and let it warm upto You!”

    Tech4people, I don't know what made you to think like that. I hope almost everybody in this community may be well known about crowd sourcing and how it will help in need.

  72. Mr. Roques
    August 26, 2013

    The videos did help a lot. I dont think it can handle metal although maybe some alloy. I'm assuming the advantage would be making thousands of them because the individual speed is very low. 

  73. Susan Fourtané
    August 28, 2013

    Mr.R, 

    Making thousands of what? :/ 

    -Susan

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